DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, VIROLOGY
AND TMA IMMUNOLOGY.
The Department of Microbiology was organized simultaneously with the formation of the faculty in the fall of 1919. its First head was Professor Alexey Grekov, who gave a course of lectures on General Microbiology.
Alexey Dmitrievich was born in Novocherkassk in 1873, on March 17, old style, in the family of a Cossack of the don army. He studied at the famous Platov gymnasium. After graduating from high school in 1892, Alexey Dmitrievich went to St. Petersburg, to the Military medical Academy.
In 1897, A.D. Grekov received a doctor’s degree with honors and in February of the following year arrived in the County town of Merv in the Transcaspian region, now Mary in Turkmenistan. He was appointed Junior doctor of a small military infirmary.
But the main business of Alexey Dmitrievich’s life was science and the creation of his favorite brainchild-the Regional bacteriological research Institute. In 1918, the bacteriological laboratory at the military hospital was renamed the Microbiological laboratory of the people’s Commissariat of health of the Turkestan Republic. It was located across the street from the Tashkent military hospital. Alexey Dmitrievich was appointed head of the laboratory. Immediately, on the territory of the laboratory, Alexey Dmitrievich settled down with his family, considering it even convenient. He could keep up to date 24 hours a day and monitor the operation of the new thermostats that were necessary for the preparation of vaccines. First released typhoid and cholera. Then, together with the master of veterinary medicine Sergey Dmitriev, we managed to prepare an anti-inflammatory vaccine, which was very useful — since smallpox remained a common disease in Turkestan. Having prepared the laboratory as a base, Professor A.D. Grekov organized the Sanitary and bacteriological Institute of the people’s Commissariat of health of Uzbekistan and became its first Director.
Until 1933, the Department conducted mainly pedagogical work. In 1933 a Professor of the Department was elected Steben V. D., under whose direction the work was performed on the characteristics of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus.
Pavel Fedorovich Samsonov, having defended his doctoral thesis on the bacteriology of brucellosis, became a Professor of the Department, honored worker of science of the UzSSR. He was the leading scientist of Uzbekistan in the field of medical Microbiology.
The scientific activity of the Department of Microbiology in the pre-war period and during the war was aimed at: continuing to study the features of Staphylococcus aureus (R. p. Katz, 1936), as well as the characteristics of enterococci in chronic ulcerative colitis (Drapkina A.V., 1938), serological typification of tuberculosis bacteria (1943), comparative evaluation of the milk-coagulase method for determining the coli-titer of water in open reservoirs (Grinevich A. T., 1945).
The research work of the Department of Microbiology in the post-war period (1945-1964g.) was characterized by the development of problems of General Microbiology, issues of sanitary bacteriology, diphtheria, intestinal and other infections.
As a result of the fruitful work of Professor P. F. Samsonov during the period of his work from 1939 to 1964, 30 dissertations were defended under his leadership. A prominent scientist, an erudite microbiologist, Professor P. F. Samsonov has done much to study the regional infectious pathology. In particular, he published instructional letters for practitioners on Ku-fever and other infections. For the first time in Uzbekistan, Professor P. F. Samsonov discovered enterococci in inflammatory processes of the skin of hands in workers of silk mills. A parallel study of the microflora and response immunobiological shifts in the body of patients established the etiological role of enterococci in purulent inflammatory processes of different localization.
During the years 1964-1971, the Department further improved its educational and scientific work. Training of scientific and pedagogical personnel at the Department continued. So, from 1964 to 1971, 12 people defended their PhD theses at the Department. In particular there were defended 2 doctoral thesis: Professor L. I. Kartushino on the theme: “the Role of bacteriocins in the formation of the long carriers of diphtheria bacteria in the tonsils,” and associate Professor Yu. a. by Ahmedjanova, which amounted to the textbook “Microbiology Virology asoslari VA” in the Uzbek language, and defended it as a doctoral dissertation in 1966.
For many years, the Department of Microbiology has been studying some opportunistic bacteria (Enterococcus, E. coli, Proteus, etc.).
Since the 50s, the Department of Microbiology has studied the enzyme-toxic properties and proved the ability of Enterococcus to produce aggression enzymes, conducted serological differentiation of Enterococcus and studied the possibility of their phagoidentification (Yu. a. Akhmedzhanov, N. A. Akhmedov, R. F. Umarova, sh. n. Holtaev, G. G. Broussel, A. F. Foliyants, etc.). The etiological value of enterococci in dyspepsia in children was established (Kim L. P.)
During 1980-1995, research work at the Department became more active. Clinical immunology has become a new field. At the Department, an immunological laboratory was organized, on the basis of which not only employees of the Department of Microbiology, but also other departments of Tashgosmi, as well as institutes of the Republic and Leningrad, mastered and developed new methods for assessing the immune status of a person: determining the subpopulation of lymphocytes (T-lymphocytes, T-suppressors, T-helpers, B-lymphocytes, b-suppressors, b-helpers, O-lymphocytes, etc.). A new promising and original direction of scientific research was the determination of antigen-binding lymphocytes in the blood of patients. Associate Professor I. M. Mukhamedov headed the research group on the study of the human gastrointestinal microflora. We studied intestinal microbiocenosis and its correction when exposed to pesticides (associate Professor I. M. Mukhamedov), immunosuppressants (assistant N. A. Amanov), and thymectomy in combination with Salmonella infection (assistant sh.K.Adylov).
Since 1988, lectures and practical classes have also been held in Uzbek.
In 1991, Tashgosmi was divided into two medical institutes (I and II Tashgosmi).
In the II Tashkent state medical Institute, students were medical, pedagogical and mediko-preventive faculties. These years were fruitful in scientific terms – they were discovered and tested experimentally and clinically, and then the release of large-scale immunocoregative drugs “Immunomodulin” and “T-activin”was imposed.
The result of a large research work in 1991 was the defense of the doctorate thesis by associate Professor I. M. Mukhamedov on the topic: “Violation of the microbiocenosis of the intestinal morphostructure and the immune system under separate and combined exposure to pesticides (cotoran, magnesium chlorate) and Salmonella”.
In recent years, the Department has made great progress in research work. So over the last 10 years produced several PhDs: Nuraliev N. A. Urusova Z. A., the number of PhDs Irgasheva H. I., Alikaeva L. J., Rustamov S. M., Suleimanova G. T., Chugaeva S. A., Kurbanova S. Yu
Over the years, she has published more than 150 printed works, of which 3 are textbooks, 4 patents, more than 60 are educational and methodological developments. under her leadership, she defended 1 PhD thesis and 22 master’s theses. It introduced the practice of teaching lectures and practical material in English.
Z. A. Nuruzova at the Department organized a self-supporting laboratory at the expense of which there is a supply of laboratory work with reagents for the educational process.
Under her leadership, state standards, training programs, and laboratory work on the subject are developed, which are used by all medical institutions in Uzbekistan.
As a member of the Who expert group, she is involved in organizing high-quality work in practical laboratories and providing them with qualified personnel.